Also known as Saint Simon the Englishman. Confessor; general of the Carmelite Order. Born in Kent, England c.1165; died Bordeaux, France, c.1265. According to tradition, from the age of 12 he lived as a hermit in the hollow trunk of an oak tree, whence he was called Simon Stock. He later joined the Carmelite Order, traveled to Rome and Mount Carmel, and in 1247 was elected sixth general of the Order. Under his rule it spread rapidly in England and throughout southern and western Europe. He established communities in the university cities of Cambridge in 1248, Oxford in 1253, Paris and Bologna in 1260, and revised the Rule, making it more adaptable to European conditions. Later legends relate how the Mother of God appeared to him during a period of great oppression of the Order, and invested him in the scapular, granting the privilege that anyone who dies wearing the scapular is not eternally lost. The antiphonies of Saint Simon, Flos Carmeli and Ave Stella Matutina show his particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin. Represented receiving the scapular from the Blessed Virgin. Relics in the cathedral at Bordeaux. Feast, 16 May.