Congregation was founded by Pope Benedict XV on 4 November 1915, who united to it the Congregation of Studies. The presiding officer is the cardinal prefect who is ex officio a member of the Holy Office and of the Biblical Commission. The cardinal secretary of the Consistorial Congregation is by law a member of this congregation. This congregation supervises everything pertaining to the government, discipline, administration, and alienation of the temporalities, and the studies of all seminaries which are not subject to the Congregation of Propaganda. It directs the government and studies of all universities and faculties which are under the authority of the Church, including those directed by religious orders or congregations. It examines and approves new institutions, grants the power to confer academic degrees, and prescribes the conditions for granting them. It can itself confer degrees.
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