A term which includes the monastic institutions founded during the 6th century in Scotland, through the zeal and energy of Saint Columba. They grouped themselves round Iona, which they acknowledged as the mother-house. Traces of Columban foundations are to be found in the northern, eastern and western districts of Scotland, formerly occupied by the northern and southern Picts. Later, Dunkeld took the place of Iona as the head of the Columban churches. Early in the 8th century the remaining Columban monks were expelled by King Nectan, and the primacy of Iona came to an end. The numerous Columban monasteries fell to the Culdees who were gradually superseded by the regular monastic orders. Deer Monastery survived the others for 50 years but was extinguished like the rest.
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